Facebook Anphu Twitter Anphu Youtube Anphu In Anphu Google Anphu

Formulating fish feed using earthworms as a protein source

21-01-2017 Anphu Earthworm Co., Ltd - Solution for organic agriculture
Formulated feeds are complete feeds which supply all the nutrients necessary for optimal growth and health of the fish in culture practices. In many areas of the world protein sources are scarce and for formulating aquafeeds earthworms as a protein source might provide an alternative to common used raw materials.Earthworm: Good nutrition in an animal production system is essential to economically produce a healthy, high quality product. Nutrition is critical because it represents 40% to 50% of operational and production cost. Fish nutrition has advanced dramatically in recent times with the development of new and balanced commercial feeds that promote optimal fish growth and health.
The development of species specific feed formulations support the aquaculture industry as it expands to satisfy increasing demands for affordable, safe, and high quality fish and fish products. The cost of fish feed is considered as the highest share of total cost in any aquaculture operation, therefore feed quality and feeding strategies are of great importance in fish nutrition sciences. The feed should supply all essential nutrients and energy in tune with the animal’s needs for the maintenance of vital physiological functions such as growth, reproduction and health. In aquaculture as in other animal production systems, a major issue is that of ensuring fresh and environmentally hygienic products which are related to nutrition.
Protein is usually the first nutrient considered, with the level of energy in the diet being adjusted to provide the optimum ratio. The protein has to be balanced for essential amino acids. It is the main constituent of the fish body. Animal sources are higher in protein than plant sources. Hence earthworm species Eisenia foetida are used as a source of protein to formulate the feed.

Formulation of fish feed
In an experiment fully grown earthworms of about 80 gm were collected, brought to the laboratory, washed and cleaned using blotting paper. They were sacrificed by introducing them to boiling water and squashed using mortar and pestle. Ingredients such as milk powder (60 gm), corn flour (20 gm), and eggs (70 gm) were added and mixed well. Agar powders (4 gm) were added as binding agent; turmeric, pepper and cumin powder (each of 0.5gm) and garlic paste (1 gm) were added as antibiotics. Cod liver oil (3.5 ml) and vitamin mixture of B and E (each of 1gm) were added. Ingredients in semisolid form were kept under refrigeration for 12 hrs. Then they were squeezed over a polythene sheet and dried at room temperature for 48 hrs. The dried nodules were crushed into small pellets. Pellets were sun dried to avoid fungal infection, weighted, stored in the bottles and were used as and when required.

Nutritional importance of ingredients used
Fish feed formulated from Eisenia foetida produced satisfactory growth. They are excellent source for feed formulation of cultured fish species. The dry weight analysis of Eisenia foetida shows 61% crude proteins, 9% fats, and 5% ashes
Milk powder was used for its nutritional properties as it contains all the 20 standard amino acids. It is also rich in soluble vitamins and minerals. The average amount of major nutrients in the unreconstitued milk is 36% proteins, 52% carbohydrates (particularly lactose) and 1.3% calcium. It is fortified with vitamin A and D.
Egg albumin was taken as an ingredient during feed formulation. It contains 15% protein dissolved in water. It is a rich source of about 40 different types of proteins like ovalbumin – 64%, ovatranseferin -12%, ovomucoid – 1.5% and globulin – 8%
Corn flour is used as a filler, binder and thickener in feed. It is composed of 3 gms proteins, 23 gms carbohydrates and 1gm fat. The total calories are 110 cal/gm. The major ingredients are maize and starch
Cod liver oil is derived from the liver of cod fish (Gadus callarias). It has high levels of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid chain of EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid). It is a good source of fat soluble vitamins A and D. It has a fishy taste. It contains small amount of fish protein which gives a fishy smell to it. Cod liver oil along with vitamin E prevents the body from increasing oxidant stress. It reduces the tendency of blood forming clot. It helps to reduce the generation of free radicals in the body.
Vitamin B and E were used as vitamin mixture in equal proportions. Vitamin B complex is composed of thiamine mononitrite, vitamin B2, B6, B12, nicotinamide, folic acid, biotin and titanium dioxide which promotes activity of enzymes and plays an important role in cell growth and metabolism. It is an essential nutrient for growth, development and bodily functions. Vitamin E was used as a powerful antioxidant which protects the body against free radicals, which are potentially damaging byproducts of energy metabolism.
Agar powder was used as a binding agent that binds loose mixture together and forms a unique mass of the feed. It is a polymer made up of subunits of sugar galactose. Agar powder acts as an emulsifying and suspending agent.
Turmeric powder (Curcuma longa) was selected as an ingredient in feed formulation for its antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective properties. It functions as an antioxidant and protects the feed from sunlight. It aids warm, mild aroma and distinctive yellow colour to the feed thus acting as feed attractants.
Modern sciences show that garlic (Allium sativum) has both the antioxidant and antibacterial properties. Hence it was introduced as an ingredient in feed formulation.
Pepper powder (Pepper nigrum) has long been recognised as a stimulant for appetite. Pepper has two main components: volatile oil and a pungent component commonly known as pipperine. Black pepper contains 0.6 to 2.6% essential oils. Nutritionally pepper contains vitamins A, B and C.
  Cumin powder (Cuminum cyminum) helps in nutrient digestion and assimilation by stimulating the secretion of pancreatic enzymes.

 

by Dr.M.P.Bhilave and S.B. Nadaf. Department of Zoology, Shivaji University, Kolhapur, India 29 Oct 2010 last update:6 Aug 2012

Source:https://www.allaboutfeed.net/Nutrition/Raw-Materials/2010/10/Formulating-fish-feed-using-earthworms-as-a-protein-source-AAF011508W/

Rate this post

Leave a Reply

Be the First to Comment!

Notify of
avatar
wpDiscuz

FEATURED ARTICLE

  • Ngày đăng : 21-01-2017 Người đăng : Anphu Earthworm Co., Ltd - Solution for organic agriculture

    Partial replacement of fish meal by earthworm meal

    Full Length Research Paper Partial replacement of fish meal by earthworm meal (Libyodrilus violaceus) in diets for African catfish, Clarias gariepinus Fish meal is the most common source of protein for aqua feeds. However, the cost of fish meal is on the rise, because of its competing use as feed ingredient by other animals (livestock, ruminants etc.). It is therefore necessary to find alternatives to fish meal in the preparation of animal diets.Various workers have attempted to use other locally available cheap protein sources (e.g. plant protein, agricultural by- products, fishery
    Read more ...
  • Ngày đăng : 21-01-2017 Người đăng : Anphu Earthworm Co., Ltd - Solution for organic agriculture

    Formulating fish feed using earthworms as a protein source

    Formulated feeds are complete feeds which supply all the nutrients necessary for optimal growth and health of the fish in culture practices. In many areas of the world protein sources are scarce and for formulating aquafeeds earthworms as a protein source might provide an alternative to common used raw materials.Earthworm: Good nutrition in an animal production system is essential to economically produce a healthy, high quality product. Nutrition is critical because it represents 40% to 50% of operational and production cost. Fish nutrition has advanced dramatically in recent
    Read more ...
  • Ngày đăng : 21-01-2017 Người đăng : Anphu Earthworm Co., Ltd - Solution for organic agriculture

    Including Earthworm in Organic Poultry Diets

    Introduction It is common for free-range chickens to consume earthworms. Earthworms are very efficient at converting plant and animal wastes into biomass that can be used as a feed ingredient in animal production: a ton of animal wastes will produce about 100 kg of worms (Edwards, 1985). Earthworms are a good quality protein for use in animal feeds, but the practical use of earthworm meal is influenced by economics. Technology is available for large-scale production of earthworms, but separating the earthworms from the organic wastes in which they are growing is labor intensive, thus
    Read more ...
  • Ngày đăng : 21-01-2017 Người đăng : Anphu Earthworm Co., Ltd - Solution for organic agriculture

    The Benefit of Earthworm

    Earthworm have many benefits. In fact, many people who eat it to cure some disease, without effects, so safe to consume. According to the experiences of people who had experienced a fever or high body temperature, with an extra ingredient earthworms eat their disorders improved. HIGH PROTEIN According to research ever done that earthworms are very high source of protein. Earthworms also contains several amino acids with a high level. One of them, worm Lumbricus rubellus contain very high protein content approximately 76%. This concentration is higher than mammal meat (65%) or fish
    Read more ...
  • Ngày đăng : 02-06-2017 Người đăng : Anphu Earthworm Co., Ltd - Solution for organic agriculture

    How to make worm tea

    Do you own a Wriggly Wranch Worm Bin or a worm bin in general and wonder what the liquid that forms in the bottom tray is? It is worm tea, sometimes it is also called “vermiwash.” You may not be aware but there are numerous benefits of using worm tea in your soil. Worm tea is a natural fertilizer which is used to promote the growth of plants. If you own a wriggly wranch bin, worm tea forms in the bottom tray that can be drained from the spigot. If you are a gardening enthusiast, you can use worm tea to replenish the soil with nutrients and protect plants from many plant diseases. Worm tea
    Read more ...
  • Ngày đăng : 21-01-2017 Người đăng : Anphu Earthworm Co., Ltd - Solution for organic agriculture

    Earthworm For Marble GobyFish and Catfish

    Utilization of earthworms (Perionyx excavatus) as a protein source for growing fingerling marble goby (Oxyeleotris marmoratus) and tra catfish (Pangasius hypophthalmus) Nguyen Huu Yen Nhi Faculty of Agricultural and Natural resource, An Giang University, Long Xuyen City, Vietnam nhynhi@agu.edu.vn Literature review Biological characteristics and feeding behavior of two fish species There are many reports on the effects of various animal wastes on growth and reproduction of earthworms. According to Chaudhuri and Gautam Bhattacharjee (2002), biomass production and reproduction of the
    Read more ...
  • Ngày đăng : 21-01-2017 Người đăng : Anphu Earthworm Co., Ltd - Solution for organic agriculture

    Earthworm powder as extra fish food.

    Earthworm powder as extra fish food. The optimization of protein content in earthworm-based fish feed formulation was investigated in the study Full factorial design (FFD) and central composite design (CCD) were used as a statistical tool to screen the range of the selected parameters and to optimize the process respectively Three components were combined in the fish feed formulation namely earthworm powder chicken guts and soybean waste as the protein source The optimum nutritional values were obtained at 25% 25% and 595% for earthworm powder soybean waste and chicken guts
    Read more ...
  • Ngày đăng : 21-01-2017 Người đăng : Anphu Earthworm Co., Ltd - Solution for organic agriculture

    Earthworm powder for animal

    WHAT IS EARTHWORM POWDER? Adequate amount of essential amino acids, Comparable fatty acid profile are essential for shrimp, fishes, birds, Pets and all animals. Specifically in terms of lysine & combination of methionine, cysteine, phenylanine & tyrosine which are important for growth and cell repair of all animals. Preponderance of long chain fatty acids, Adaquate mineral content is inevitable. Presence of wide range of vitamins, Rich in Niacine – an unusual source of Vitamin B12 and a valuable component of animal feed, Linoleic and Linolenic acids are mandatory for animal feed a
    Read more ...

Anphu Earthworm Co., Ltd – Solution for organic agriculture

Design by: Trung Đan